The main species of Truffle

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The main truffle species are distinguished on the basis of their shape, size and colour, the ornamentation of the peridium, the look of the gleba, the scent and taste. Should these features not be sufficient, it is necessary to examine the actual asci and spores under the microscope; which may be either reticular, pitted or rough. It is today possible to determine the truffle in all their stages of development by means of bio-molecular examinations.

There are about ten different truffle species in Italy, the most prized of these being the Tuber magnatim Pico (known as the white Alba truffle), or d’Acqualagna or Bianco pregiato (prized white), which has always held the leading place, both in terms of its place on the table and in terms of price. Then we have the T.melanosporum Vitt. (black truffle of Norcia and Spoleto or Nero pregiato prized black, which has still not received the appreciation that it deserves in Italy), the T.borchii Vitt. (Bianchetto or Marzuolo), the T.aestivum Vitt (Scorzone) with its unicinatum Fischer variety that is now been classified as a species by Italian law, then there is T.brumale Vitt. (winter truffle) with its moschatum Ferry variety; as well as the fragrant and tasty T.macrosporum Vitt. (Smooth black).